妇产科医生(通常缩写为Ob gyen)是专门护理女性生殖系统疾病和失调的DO或MD医生. Ob Gyns treat health conditions in patients that affect menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, the pelvic floor, and the internal reproductive and external reproductive organs. 妇产科医生可以在各种环境中工作，包括诊所、医院单元和外科中心. Ob Gyns interview patients, diagnose health conditions, prescribe medications, perform in office procedures, and operate in reproductive surgical centers. The field of Obstetrics and Gynecology is very wide and diverse. 一些妇产科医生治疗和照顾各种不同类型的妇女生殖健康问题, 而其他妇产科医生则选择专攻某一特定的医疗重点领域，称为奖学金.
|What an obgyn does||Medical care provided||In office procedures|
|Obstetrician vs Gynecologist||Education required||Sub-specialties|
|Ob gyn as a pelvic surgeon||Obstetrics and Gynecology news||Job outlook|
What does an Ob-Gyn do?
产科医生和妇科医生治疗各种影响年轻和年老妇女的健康问题. 该专业侧重于女性生殖健康、怀孕和分娩的护理. 许多妇产科生殖医生将他们的时间分成两部分，一是在医院照顾妇女，二是在诊所照顾妇女. In the hospital, Ob gyn doctors oversee child birth, perform surgery on patients, and round on hospitalized patients.
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In the clinic, Ob Gyns see women for wellness health care exams, pregnancy check-ups, pelvic dysfunction disorders, infertility treatment, urinary issues, pelvic pain, sexually transmitted infections, and birth control options. Obstetrician gynecologists also perform small medical procedures in office, such as intrauterine device insertion, and utilize the latest technology like ultrasound.
What medical care does an Ob Gyn provide?
As previously mentioned, 妇产科医生在妇科和产科领域治疗影响妇女的各种医疗健康问题. The top five most frequently encountered health conditions that Ob Gyns treat include:
- Pregnancy and childbirth
- Abnormal uterine bleeding
- Menopausal health concerns
- Pelvic pain
What is an Ob Gyn able to do in office?
办公室医疗程序通常是医生在办公室进行的一些小的健康程序，不需要外科中心的广泛的医疗护理和监督. 有一些产科医生、妇科医生在办公室做的保健程序. This includes:
- Insertion and removal of intrauterine conception devices
- Pap cancer smears
- Breast exams
- Biopsy sampling
- Ultrasound health examinations
- Insertion and removal of pessaries to treat pelvic floor dysfunction
What is the difference between an Obstetrician and Gynecologist?
Many Ob Gyn doctors choose to practice both obstetric and gynecologist medicine. 产科是医学的一个分支，旨在为孕妇提供医疗保健服务. 这包括从怀孕前甚至分娩后开始提供护理. Obstetricians will measure and ensure adequate growth and health of the baby, oversee health of the mom, monitor important laboratory testing, and help to plan for childbirth.
The second half of medicine that Ob Gyns practice is Gynecology. 妇科领域的重点是提供涉及女性生殖道的保健. Gynecologists provide reproductive medical care including the following:
- Providing pap test screenings for cervical cancer
- Treating menstrual dysfunctions
- Diagnosing and providing care for urinary dysfunctions
- Prescribing different birth control options
- Managing pelvic floor disorders
- Caring for ovarian disorders and cancer
What are the educational steps to becoming an Ob Gyn?
To become an ob gyn, one must complete a very rigorous educational path. To begin, one must obtain a bachelor's degree from a college. 在那之后，你必须从骨科医学项目(D.O. degree) or an Allopathic Medical Program (M.D. degree). Students are formally doctors after graduation, but their education is not complete. 从医学院毕业后，必须参加妇产科住院医师培训项目. 妇产科住院实习四年，至少与一家医院有联系. After completing residency, ob gyns have the option of completing a fellowship in a specific field of study. 妇产科的大多数奖学金持续不到三年，并允许参与者在产科或妇科的特定领域进一步专攻
Can OB GYNs sub-specialize into medical areas such as Reproductive medicine?
Similar to other physician professions, Ob Gyns can choose to subspecialize into a certain facet of medicine. 这要求妇产科医生花至少一年的时间研究他们想关注的特定医疗领域. This time is termed a fellowship. After completion of an Ob Gyn's fellowship, 他们必须通过委员会的认证考试，才能在该医学亚专业获得全面认证. A few of the Ob Gyn's fellowship options includes:
- Gynecologic oncology-这个专业(通常缩写为gyn onc)允许妇科医生专注于治疗女性生殖道癌症. Gynecologist oncology doctors perform surgery on gyn cancer tumors, oversee chemotherapy medications for gyn cancer, 并与其他医学专家合作，如辐射医生，帮助管理癌症病例.
- Maternal and Fetal Medicine- This specialty (often called MFM) focuses on providing care to women who are pregnant. 产妇和胎儿医学产科医生为怀孕风险高的妇女和有妊娠并发症的妇女提供护理. They also provide care for women who are pregnant with more than one baby
- Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility- In this specialty, 妇产科主要为怀孕困难的妇女提供生殖医疗服务. This includes treating endocrinology conditions that may affect reproductive fertility in women.
Is an OB GYN a pelvic surgeon?
Yes, an Ob Gyn is a pelvic surgeon. 妇产科医生(非专科医生)给病人做的最常见的手术是剖腹产(c节)。. Cesarian sections affect the health of the mother and are necessary for several reasons. These include:
- Malposition of the unborn baby
- Improper position of the placenta (placenta previa)
- Vessels overlying the opening of the cervix (vasa previa)
- Twin or triplet pregnancies
- Infections such as herpes or HIV
- Labor that does not progress, meaning it is too slow or taking too long
- Fetal distress
- Fetal birth defect
- Very large fetal weight
Other common surgeries that Ob Gyns Perform include:
- Myomectomy- removal of benign leiomyoma tumors (also called fibroids)
- Pelvic support surgery- usually done to correct organ prolapse
- Oophrectomy- removal of ovaries
- Salpingectomy- removal of fallopian tubes
- Endometrial ablation- removal of the lining of the endometrial cavity, often done to correct heavy periods
What are the newest medical innovations in Obstetrics and Gynecology?
One of the most feared complications during childbirth is postpartum hemorrhage, loss of an excessive amount of blood which can be life threatening. Previously, medications, blood products, health procedures, and even hysterectomies were needed to prevent further loss of blood. 非手术的选择过去仅限于子宫球囊，这种球囊可以膨胀，试图填塞血流. However, this was rarely used as it infrequently staunched postpartum bleeding. 最近，一种用于产后出血的真空填塞装置的健康创新帮助提供了另一种非手术治疗方法. 这种装置允许妇产科医生利用子宫内的负压，使子宫肌肉关闭出血的血管. 这种微创治疗产后出血的方法并发症少，技术含量低, allowing areas with low resource availability a new option of treatment.
产科和妇科的另一个创新是在子宫内提供胎儿治疗的能力. 这项技术的进步使妇产科医生能够在胎儿还在子宫内的时候就为其提供医疗治疗, without disrupting or causing birth. 医学并发症，如双胎输血综合征(其中一个双胞胎接受了大部分的血液供应), 而脊柱裂(一种脊髓畸形综合症)现在可以在出生前得到治疗.
What is the job outlook for OB-GYNS?
从妇产科医生未来的职业前景来看，医生的短缺将会越来越严重, and a career path that will continue to be in demand. The primary medical organization for gynecologist obstetricians is The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (ACOG). 根据美国妇产科医师大会(ACOG)的一篇文章，目前产科医师的短缺在未来将会增加, based on past standards continuing. As of 2017, 美国妇产科医师大会(ACOG)也报告说，美国一半的县没有一名妇产科医生. In 2020, ACOG announced a US shortage of over 8,000 obstetricians and gynecologists. This staggering necessity will only increase, as the US is projected to be short 22,000 obstetricians and gynecologists by 2050.
凯丽·托雷斯(Callie Torres)是美国空军上尉，也是圣路易斯华盛顿/巴恩斯犹太医院的住院医师. 她是一名自由撰稿人，发表了许多医学文章以及多个同行评议的医学出版物